Handwriting performance of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorders: A pilot study

Sara Rosenblum, Liora Epsztein, Naomi Josman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the handwriting characteristics of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), while on and off medication, as well as with a control group. Methods. Twelve children with ADHD and 12 control children, aged 8-10, performed a paragraph-copying task using a computerized system. The children with ADHD performed the task both while on and off medication. The handwriting product of both groups was then evaluated with the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation tool. Conclusion. Results provide evidence for poorer performance of children with ADHD in comparison to children without ADHD on most handwriting process and product measures. Children with ADHD demonstrated significantly more total time including in-air time spent in handwriting performance when off medication. The possible implications of these results regarding the future use of handwriting process and product evaluations for children with ADHD in school settings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-234
Number of pages16
JournalPhysical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 9 Jul 2008


  • Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD)
  • Handwriting
  • On and off medication
  • Stimulant medication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Occupational Therapy


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