Our previous study indicated that glycerol application induced resistance to powdery mildew (Bgt) in wheat by regulating two important signal molecules, glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and oleic acid (OA18:1). Transcriptome analysis of wheat leaves treated by glycerol and inoculated with Bgt was performed to identify the activated immune response pathways. We identified a set of differentially expressed transcripts (e.g., TaGLI1, TaACT1, and TaSSI2) involved in glycerol and fatty acid metabolism that were upregulated in response to Bgt infection and might contribute to G3P and OA18:1 accumulation. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed GO terms induced by glycerol, such as response to jasmonic acid (JA), defense response to bacterium, lipid oxidation, and growth. In addition, glycerol application induced genes (e.g., LOX, AOS, and OPRs) involved in the metabolism pathway of linolenic and alpha-linolenic acid, which are precursor molecules of JA biosynthesis. Glycerol induced JA and salicylic acid (SA) levels, while glycerol reduced the auxin (IAA) level in wheat. Glycerol treatment also induced pathogenesis related (PR) genes, including PR-1, PR-3, PR-10, callose synthase, PRMS, RPM1, peroxidase, HSP70, HSP90, etc. These results indicate that glycerol treatment regulates fatty acid metabolism and hormones cross-talk and induces the expression of PR genes that together contribute to Bgt resistance in wheat.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31671676), the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2016YFD0101802), and the Israel Science Foundation (1366/18).
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Disease resistance
- Glycerol application
- Transcriptome sequencing
- Triticum aestivum L
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry