Globalization and wartime trade

Tal Sadeh, Nizan Feldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article argues that on balance globalization does not increase, and may even reduce, the opportunity cost of Militarized Interstate Disputes (MIDs), as measured by foregone merchandise trade. Specifically, globalization makes it easier for states to substitute trade partners, makes it difficult to employ trade sanctions, makes credit more available to states at conflict, and encourages trade-substituting horizontal Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and sanctions-resilient vertical FDI. Hypotheses are supported using High Dimensional Fixed Effects regression, applied to a Gravity model, with two-way clustering of standard errors, and an analysis of the effect of globalization on the marginal effect of MIDs on international trade. This suggests that while wars are becoming infrequent in recent decades, due to other factors, trade’s contribution to peace is diminishing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-260
Number of pages26
JournalCooperation and Conflict
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • globalization
  • gravity equation
  • interstate conflict
  • trade

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Development
  • General Social Sciences
  • Political Science and International Relations


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