Geoscience rediscovers Phoenicia's buried harbors

Nick Marriner, Christophe Morhange, Claude Doumet-Serhal, Pierre Carbonel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


After centuries of archaeological debate, the harbors of Phoenicia's two most important city states, Tyre and Sidon, have been rediscovered, and including new geoarcheological results reveal how, where, and when they evolved after their Bronze Age foundations. The early ports lie beneath their present urban centers, and we have indentified four harbor phases. (1) During the Bronze Age, Tyre and Sidon were characterized by semi-open marine coves that served as protoharbors. (2) Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic data indicate the presence of early artificial basins after the first millennium B.C. (3) The harbors reached their apogees during the Greco-Roman and Byzantine periods. (4) Silting up and coastal progradation led to burial of the medieval basins, lost until now.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-4
Number of pages4
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Ancient harbor
  • Coastal geomorphology
  • Geoarcheology
  • Mediterranean

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology


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