Gender Differences in Expectations in Risk Situations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of the present article is to examine differences between men and women in terms of expectations of conduct (courage, risk-taking and providing protection), and to examine the validity and reliability of a simple and short measure of the obligations and rights in risk situation. The study was based on a community sample of 420 Muslim students. The findings show that both genders believe that men, more than women, ought to be brave, take risks and protect their female partners, but this does not necessarily mean that they are entitled to dominance and control in risk situations. Theoretical and empirical implications of the theoretical framework, the measurement and the findings were discussed. Public significance: The present study highlights aspects that have not received direct scientific attention, despite their great social importance. The study offers a theoretical and operational framework that will provide a basis for further research, which will deepen the knowledge and understanding of gender differences in basic roles in different life contexts and in different socio-cultural environments. This also could contribute to better understanding of deviant behavior criteria in scope of culture presence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1598-1606
Number of pages9
JournalDeviant Behavior
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Law


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