Future orientation: Age-related differences among adolescent females

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The main objective of this study was to examine age-related differences in adolescent orientation to the future. Analysis of the hopes and fears for the future of 124 Israeli Jewish females who were in junior high school, senior high school, and senior year of college examined two alternative hypotheses. One, derived from the 1977 least necessary expenditure principle of Heckhausen, predicted differences among the three age groups, and the other, derived from the 1986 social control and continuity principle of Kohli, predicted no such differences. Results showed greater support for the hypothesis derived from the least necessary expenditure principle. However, sample characteristics (size, one-gender, one cultural group) and the cross-sectional design of this study call for additional examination of age differences and their explanation in terms of the least necessary expenditure and the social control and continuity principles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-437
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Youth and Adolescence
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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