Smart vehicles with embedded Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technologies are currently equipped with different types of mounted sensors, aiming to ensure safe movement for both passengers and other road users. The sensors’ ability to capture and gather data to be synchronically interpreted by neural networks for a clear understanding of the surroundings is influenced by lighting conditions, such as natural lighting levels, artificial lighting effects, time of day, and various weather conditions, such as rain, fog, haze, and extreme temperatures. Such changing environmental conditions are also known as complex environments. In addition, the appearance of other road users is varied and relative to the vehicle’s perspective; thus, the identification of features in a complex background is still a challenge. This paper presents a pre-processing method using multi-sensorial RGB and thermal camera data. The aim is to handle issues arising from the combined inputs of multiple sensors, such as data registration and value unification. Foreground refinement, followed by a novel statistical anomaly-based feature extraction prior to image fusion, is presented. The results met the AV challenges in CNN’s classification. The reduction of the collected data and its variation level was achieved. The unified physical value contributed to the robustness of input data, providing a better perception of the surroundings under varied environmental conditions in mixed datasets for day and night images. The method presented uses fused images, robustly enriched with texture and feature depth and reduced dependency on lighting or environmental conditions, as an input for a CNN. The CNN was capable of extracting and classifying dynamic objects as vehicles and pedestrians from the complex background in both daylight and nightlight images.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grants (no. 67437 and 74538) from the Israel Innovation Authority’s AVATAR consortium (Autonomous Vehicle Advanced Technologies for situational AwaReness).
© 2023 by the authors.
- anomaly fusion
- complex environment
- dynamic objects extraction
- physical value
- pre-network fusion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (all)