The article examines two dimensions of political representation in Iraqi Kurdistan: representation as presence and substantive representation. It is argued that the high proportionality of the electoral system enables representation as presence, of women, minorities and diverse geographical, linguistic and socio-economic interests and groups. However, the electoral system challenges representation in both dimensions, insofar as it hampers the development of effective opposition. The opposition is vital to confront clientelism and corruption that undermine democracy in the region.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sociology and Political Science