From 9/11 through Katrina to Covid-19: crisis recovery campaigns for American destinations

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Since 2001, growing numbers of American destinations have been combating crises such as terrorist attacks, floods, pandemics, volcanic eruptions, mass shootings, hurricanes, coastal pollution and wildfires. Due to the relative quick recoveries of American cities and states, we believe their experience in handling destination image during and following tourism crises can offer helpful insights for practitioners and academics. The manuscript’s goal is to analyse how American officials and marketers have tried to repair their place’s image. Using qualitative content analysis of news reports, websites and recovery campaigns, along with the ‘multi-step model for altering place image’, this study examines strategies used by American destinations during 2001–2020 to restore tourism. To date, only several studies have been written about the subject, and those were primarily analyses of specific case studies. Therefore, a multi-case study is needed in order to formulate broad insights regarding the recovery strategies of American destinations. The findings reveal the use of three kinds of image repair strategies: source, message and audience. In addition to these strategies, the study found a number of factors that influence the image recovery efforts; they are resource allocation, cooperation, involvement of various players, quick response time and holistic crisis management policy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2875-2889
Number of pages15
JournalCurrent Issues in Tourism
Issue number20
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Covid-19
  • Crises in the U.S
  • destination marketing
  • image repair
  • recovery marketing
  • tourism crisis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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