Freshwater as a Sustainable Resource and Generator of Secondary Resources in the 21st Century: Stressors, Threats, Risks, Management and Protection Strategies, and Conservation Approaches

Doru Bănăduc, Vladica Simić, Kevin Cianfaglione, Sophia Barinova, Sergey Afanasyev, Ahmet Öktener, Grant McCall, Snežana Simić, Angela Curtean-Bănăduc

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

This paper is a synthetic overview of some of the threats, risks, and integrated water management elements in freshwater ecosystems. The paper provides some discussion of human needs and water conservation issues related to freshwater systems: (1) introduction and background; (2) water basics and natural cycles; (3) freshwater roles in human cultures and civilizations; (4) water as a biosphere cornerstone; (5) climate as a hydrospheric ‘game changer’ from the perspective of freshwater; (6) human-induced stressors’ effects on freshwater ecosystem changes (pollution, habitat fragmentation, etc.); (7) freshwater ecosystems’ biological resources in the context of unsustainable exploitation/overexploitation; (8) invasive species, parasites, and diseases in freshwater systems; (9) freshwater ecosystems’ vegetation; (10) the relationship between human warfare and water. All of these issues and more create an extremely complex matrix of stressors that plays a driving role in changing freshwater ecosystems both qualitatively and quantitatively, as well as their capacity to offer sustainable products and services to human societies. Only internationally integrated policies, strategies, assessment, monitoring, management, protection, and conservation initiatives can diminish and hopefully stop the long-term deterioration of Earth’s freshwater resources and their associated secondary resources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16570
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume19
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - 9 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

Keywords

  • conservation
  • freshwater
  • management
  • protection
  • risks
  • stressors
  • threats

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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