Aim: Poor food intake is a major concern among hospitalized older adults. This study investigated the frequency and optimal timing of in-hospital food intake assessment in terms of its ability to predict hospitalization functional outcomes. Methods: Secondary analysis of a cohort study of 699 older adults (age ≥70 years) admitted to internal medicine wards for non-disabling conditions was carried out. Daily food intake was assessed using self-reported estimation of portions consumed at each meal and calculated according to the caloric composition of the meals. Nutritional status on admission, baseline and discharge activities of daily living, and cognitive status were assessed using validated questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance (n = 263) and multiple logistic regression models (n = 475) for predicting activities of daily living and cognitive decline were used to establish required frequency and optimal timing of food-intake monitoring. Results: Mean daily intake significantly increased from the first 48 h from admission (0.51 ± 0.30) to the second and third assessments (0.62 ± 0.30 and 0.63 ± 0.30, respectively). Eating half or less of the served meals both within the first 48 h of admission and after 48 h was associated with higher odds of cognitive decline (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27–2.94; OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.04–2.51, respectively). Low intake after 48 h of admission was associated with higher odds of activities of daily living decline (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.67). Conclusions: Food intake increases from the first 48 h of admission onwards and becomes more consistent 3 days after admission. The associations between low food intake at various time points and worse functional outcomes show the importance of routine food intake monitoring for at least 3 days. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 890–895.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is a part of PhD studies supported by the Cheryl Spencer Institute of Nursing Research, University of Haifa. This study is based on data from the Hospitalization Process Effects on Functional Outcomes and Recovery (HoPE-FOR) study that was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (grant number 565/08); Clalit Health Services (grant number 04-121/2010); and the Israel National Institute for Health Policy Research (grant number 78/2013). The funding agencies had no role in the study design; the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data; or the preparation of the manuscript.
© 2019 Japan Geriatrics Society
- activities of daily living
- cognitive dysfunction
- nutritional status
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health(social science)
- Geriatrics and Gerontology