Flintlock brass fittings from the 19th-century Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

D. Cvikel, D. Ashkenazi, V. Spiegelman, A. Stern, S. Klein, G. Rimer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Akko 1 shipwreck is the remains of a 26-metre-long Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built at the beginning of the 19th century. Remains of six flintlock muskets were retrieved from the shipwreck, and characterised by various metallurgical methods. The research aimed to study the composition and microstructure of the musket fittings and their manufacturing processes, and if possible, to determine the date and origin of the raw materials. The lead isotope analysis of the fittings suggests that their raw material originated in Great Britain. Based on their typology and composition, the fittings were made in Great Britain of brass alloy and manufactured by casting, probably at the same workshop; and the staple was manufactured by casting and drawing. Considering the zinc content, combined with the manufacturing techniques, the fittings were manufactured between the latter part of the 18th and the early 19th centuries, which might indicate that they were purchased in the course of 19th century weapons trade to be used on board the Egyptian ship.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-164
Number of pages27
JournalArms and Armour
Issue number2
StatePublished - 3 Jul 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Trustees of the Armouries.


  • Akko 1 shipwreck
  • brass
  • flintlock musket
  • metallurgy
  • microstructure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • History
  • Religious studies


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