Firm orientations: The five orientations revisited

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Firm orientations have been discussed in the introductory sections of marketing management texts for many years. These orientations are important because they influence the selection and execution of most marketing activities. However, the empirical foundation of the discussions in marketing texts has been lacking. Notably, most previous empirical research has been conducted in the context of a more general, market orientation context. Neither the existence of the five orientations cited in many texts (product, production, selling, marketing, and societal marketing) nor their performance implications have not been examined empirically. This void is important because any of the five orientations may be used fruitfully by firms in different circumstances. Additionally, most discussions and examples of firms using these orientations have been from the US. The research reported here examines orientations of Israeli firms. The data suggest that the five orientations seem to guide firms in a non-US sample of firms. The results raise a number of questions regarding the impact of firm orientation on performance under different market conditions. They highlight the need for further study of the relationships between organizational orientations, market conditions, and organizational performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-70
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Global Marketing
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Company performance
  • Firm orientations
  • Israeli firms
  • Market conditions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Marketing


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