Maximizing the potential of optogenetic approaches in deep brain structures of intact animals requires optical manipulation of neurons at high spatial and temporal resolutions, while simultaneously recording electrical data from those neurons. Here, we present the first fiber-less optoelectrode with a monolithically integrated optical waveguide mixer that can deliver multicolor light at a common waveguide port to achieve multicolor modulation of the same neuronal population in vivo. We demonstrate successful device implementation by achieving efficient coupling between a side-emitting injection laser diode (ILD) and a dielectric optical waveguide mixer via a gradient-index (GRIN) lens. The use of GRIN lenses attains several design features, including high optical coupling and thermal isolation between ILDs and waveguides. We validated the packaged devices in the intact brain of anesthetized mice co-expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 and Archaerhodopsin in pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region, achieving high quality recording, activation and silencing of the exact same neurons in a given local region. This fully-integrated approach demonstrates the spatial precision and scalability needed to enable independent activation and silencing of the same or different groups of neurons in dense brain regions while simultaneously recording from them, thus considerably advancing the capabilities of currently available optogenetic toolsets.
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