Factors impacting the use of outdoor gyms, Israel as a case study

Orna Baron-Epel, Iris Ran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Outdoor gyms offer community facilities for physical activity. The aim of this study was to measure levels of use of outdoor gyms and identify characteristics of these outdoor gyms associated with their use. An observational study was performed at 18 outdoor gyms in three towns of Israel. About 1000 individuals were observed at these outdoor gyms. In addition, observations included location, other facilities, and the mean number of users per hour in each outdoor gym. Large differences in use between outdoor gyms were observed. At the outdoor gyms located at parks and beaches, we observed the highest volume of trainees compared to outdoor gyms in residential areas. The location of the outdoor gym explained 75% of the variance in use of the outdoor gyms. The number of equipment devices explained another 8.4% of variance. More men and younger adults compared to women and older adults trained on the equipment. There is a need to identify ways to encourage the public to use outdoor gyms in residential areas or invest in outdoor gyms in large public spaces adjacent to other physical activity facilities. Developing outdoor gyms suitable for women and older adults should also be a priority.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1045-1054
Number of pages10
JournalCities and Health
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Israel
  • Outdoor gyms
  • location
  • physical activity
  • training
  • use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urban Studies
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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