## Abstract

Let F be an n-vertex forest. An edge e ∉ F is said to be in F’s shadow if F ∪ {e} contains a cycle. It is easy to see that if F is an “almost tree”, i.e., a forest that contains two components, then its shadow contains at least ⌊(n−3)24⌋ edges and this is tight. Equivalently, the largest number of edges in an n-vertex cut is ⌊n24⌋. These notions have natural analogs in higher d-dimensional simplicial complexes which played a key role in several recent studies of random complexes. The higher-dimensional situation differs remarkably from the one-dimensional graph-theoretic case. In particular, the corresponding bounds depend on the underlying field of coefficients. In dimension d = 2 we derive the (tight) analogous theorems. We construct 2-dimensional “ℚ-almost-hypertrees” (defined below) with an empty shadow. We prove that an “F_{2}-almost-hypertree” cannot have an empty shadow, and we determine its least possible size. We also construct large hyperforests whose shadow is empty over every field. For d ≥ 4 even, we construct a d-dimensional F_{2}-almost-hypertree whose shadow has vanishing density. Several intriguing open questions are mentioned as well.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 133-163 |

Number of pages | 31 |

Journal | Israel Journal of Mathematics |

Volume | 229 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Jan 2019 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:∗ Research supported by an ERC grant ”High-dimensional combinatorics”. ∗∗This Research was supported by The Israel Science Foundation (grant number 862/10.) †Yuval Peled is grateful to the Azrieli Foundation for the award of an Azrieli Fellowship. ††This Research was supported by The Israel Science Foundation (grant number 862/10.) Received August 1, 2017 and in revised form March 15, 2018

Publisher Copyright:

© 2018, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Mathematics (all)