Objectives: Exposure to maternal stress during the prenatal period adversely affects child outcomes. Recent investigations have shifted to an even earlier period, the preconception period, to better understand the role of this formative period in human health and disease. We investigated the links between maternal emotional distress following preconception exposure to war, and child outcomes at age 10. Material and Methods: Before becoming pregnant, mothers were exposed to missile bombardment on the north of Israel in the 2006 war. Mothers who conceived within 12 months after the war were recruited and compared to mothers who conceived during the same period but lived in Israel but outside missile range. During the initial assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire on emotional distress. At 10 years of age, mothers and children (N = 68) reported on child socio-emotional outcomes. Results: Multiple regression analyses revealed that, in girls, higher maternal emotional distress following preconception war exposure predicted more internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and more behavior regulation problems. In boys, maternal emotional distress was not significantly related to outcomes. Conclusion: Maternal emotional distress following preconception exposure to war forecasts sex-specific child behavioral problems as reported by the mother and the child. Though the results warrant cautious interpretation because of the relatively small sample size and differential attrition, our findings add to the small but growing body of research on the consequences of maternal stress exposure prior to conception for the next generation.
|Journal||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|State||Published - 23 Mar 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by a Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research VENI grant (016.195.197-to Beijers), an Early Career Award and a Sara van Dam Project Grant of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (to Beijers), and the Israel–U.S. Binational Foundation Grant 2005383 (to Leshem).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Behavior problems
- Child development
- Executive functioning
- Preconception stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis