Explicating the Reverse Internationalization Processes of Firms

Itzhak Gnizy, Aviv Shoham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reverse internationalization (RI) is a crucial phenomenon in a world of globalization; however, research on RI remains scarce. In light of the 2008-2009 economical global crises, many internationalizing firms worldwide have deinternationalized. Given that scholars and functionaries have been sending warning signals about imminent global crisis, revisiting the RI domain and its drivers is a timely and important research area.This study uses a qualitative approach with a prime objective of exploratory work and theory development of RI. The study explicates the RI phenomenon further, proposes a broader RI conceptualization and an operational definition, and develops propositions and a model to direct future research and assist managers. Grounded in data emerged from field in-depth interviews of senior managers, findings show that RI emerges as a multifaceted formative construct reflecting a reduction in firms' activities on one or more explicit dimensions. Various internal and external factors foster RI. Since firms apply sophisticated forms of international involvement, RI domain should address its wide-ranging forms with a clearer and richer view that facilitates its conceptualization. Managers learn to pay attention to likely scenarios where episodes in internationalization may arise and lead to RI and of ways to approach them. © 2014

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)262-283
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Global Marketing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • Reverse internationalization
  • internationalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Marketing


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