Explaining Peaceful Change in Central and Eastern Europe

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter explains the process of peaceful change in Central and Eastern Europe following the demise of the Soviet system. It also explains the failure of peaceful change in the Balkans and some post-Soviet countries, such as the Ukrainian conflict in 2014. The chapter accounts for the conditions for peaceful change and for the variation between peaceful and violent change by the state-to-nation theory. The two independent variables suggested by the theory are the level of state capacity and congruence—namely the compatibility between state borders and the national identities of the countries at stake. Moreover, according to the theory, great-power engagement serves as an intervening variable and in some conditions, as explained in the chapter, may help with peaceful change.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Oxford Handbook of Peaceful Change in International Relations
EditorsT. V. Paul, Deborah Welch Larson, Harold A. Trinkunas, Anders Wivel, Ralf Emmers
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages29
ISBN (Electronic)0-19-009736-1
StatePublished - 2020

Publication series

NameOxford handbooks online

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Oxford University Press 2022. All rights reserved.


  • Balkans
  • Central and eastern europe
  • Russia
  • United states
  • democratization
  • peaceful change
  • the baltic states
  • the ussr

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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