Evolution Canyons model: Biodiversity, adaptation, and incipient sympatric ecological speciation across life: A revisit

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The “Evolution Canyon” (EC) microsite model unfolds active evolution across life. It highlights biodiversity evolution, ecological sympatric speciation (SS) with gene flow, global warming at a microscale, and disease resistance origin. The EC model has been studied in Israel in four similar ecological replicate microsites in Carmel, Galilee, Negev, Golan mountains. The EC model unfolds interslope microclimatic divergence between tropical, hot and dry, savannoid South-Facing Slope (SFS), also dubbed “African” slope (AS) abutting at a close distance of few to hundreds of meters with a temperate cool, humid, forested north-facing slope (NFS), also dubbed “European” slope (ES). Two edaphically divergent microsites in Upper Galilee expanded the microclimatic model, namely, “Evolution Plateau” and “Evolution Slope.” The microclimatic interslope divergence of EC I-IV, mirror locally, global, continental divergence. The stressful sunny AS=SFS selects frequently across life for higher polymorphism of proteins, DNA, small sequence repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, DNA repair, genome size, mutations, recombination, gene transfer, splice variation, candidate gene diversity, expression, and regulation, against the abiotic harsh physical stresses. The mild shady ES=NFS selects for biotic resistance, against pathogens, microorganisms and fungi, and for increasing photosynthesis and energetics. These microsites are SS hot spots where new adaptive species originate differentially on each slope, with gene flow overruled by selection, across life. Adaptive SS is transformed from a rare to a common model of speciation. It was highlighted by the EC microclimatic model and its extensions of ecologically divergent microsites comprising geologic, edaphic, climatic, abiotic and biotic divergences abounding globally.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNew Horizons in Evolution
Number of pages58
ISBN (Electronic)9780323907521
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Adaptive microclimatic and edaphic evolution
  • Biodiversity evolution
  • Evolution Canyon model
  • Evolution Plateau edaphic model
  • Evolution Slope edaphic model
  • Global commonality of symptaric speciation model
  • Global warming
  • Host-pathogen disease resistance
  • Selection overruling gene flow
  • Sympatric speciation across life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (all)


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