Evaluation of virtual shopping in the VMALL: Comparison of post-stroke participants to healthy control groups

Debbie Rand, Noomi Katz, Patrice L. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. To investigate the potential use of the VMall as an evaluation tool for rehabilitation by (1) describing its use with 14 post-stroke participants and (2) by comparing performance within the VMall of the post-stroke participants to healthy control participants. Design. Criterion standard. Setting. University of Haifa and the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Participants. Fourteen post-stroke participants and 93 healthy participants from three age groups (children, young adults and older adults). Procedure. The participants experienced the VMall and shopped for four grocery items and then completed feedback questionnaires. Main outcome measures. The experience of the stroke participants is described in detail. The duration and number of mistakes made during a four-item shopping task within the VMall, overall feedback, and perceived exertion. Results. Significant differences were found between each of the three healthy groups and the stroke group for the mean total time to shop (F(3,97) = 23.28, P < 0.000). The participants' overall feedback on the VMall was positive with no differences between the groups. Conclusions. The VMall as used with the four-item shopping task was found to significantly differentiate between healthy to stroke participants. The shopping task was challenging for the stroke participants which have positive implications for treatment effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1710-1719
Number of pages10
JournalDisability and Rehabilitation
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The healthy children participants were recruited and tested by Neta Erez. The adult healthy participants were recruited and tested by Soraya Abu-Ruken and third year Occupational Therapy students at the University of Haifa. The VMall was programmed by Meir Shahar with support from GestureTek, Inc. We thank the University of Haifa Development Fund, the Koniver Foundation and the Rayne Foundation for financial support.


  • Functional virtual environment
  • Stroke rehabilitation
  • Video-capture Virtual Reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation


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