Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-Barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida

Whitney A. Qualls, Günter C. Müller, Edita E. Revay, Sandra A. Allan, Kristopher L. Arheart, John C. Beier, Michal L. Smith, Jodi M. Scott, Vasiliy D. Kravchenko, Axel Hausmann, Zoya A. Yefremova, Rui De Xue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: >70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Aedes. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and >50% reduction for Anopheles crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Culex erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-110
Number of pages7
JournalActa Tropica
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Financial support: The research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AI100968 . The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Portions of this work were supported by a Deployed War-Fighter Protection Research Program Grant funded by the U.S. Department of Defense through the Armed Forces Pests Management Board and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation .


  • Anopheles crucians
  • Eugenol
  • Integrated vector control
  • Oral insecticide
  • Sugar feeding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Veterinary (miscellaneous)
  • Parasitology


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