Environmental conditions of the water column in Haifa Bay, Israel, during September-October 1993

N. Kress, B. Herut, D. Angel

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


During September 1993, the water in Haifa Bay, Israel, turned brown and turbid, and a phytoplankton bloom was observed. Preliminary examination of the seawater showed very high concentrations of o-phosphate, nitrate and dissolved oxygen, and high pH values. In order to investigate this unusual occurrence and determine the environmental conditions that allowed for its development, the chemical and physical characteristics of the water column were measured, one during the unusual bloom in September and one during October 1993, after the bay appeared to have returned to normal. The distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll-a at the surface corresponded closely to that of the salinity and temperature, with high concentrations in the region close to the Kishon estuary, decreasing northward and westward. It was possible to determine that the Kishon river was the main source of the nutrients to the bay, originating from the effluents discharged into the river by a sewage treatment plant and nearby industries. During September, the input of nutrients from the Kishon to the bay was twice as in October, and this, together with favorable hydrographic conditions, most probably caused the unusual extensive phytoplankton bloom.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-64
Number of pages8
JournalWater Science and Technology
Issue number9-10
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of the 1994 International Symposium on Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea - Nicosia, Cyprus
Duration: 2 Nov 19944 Nov 1994

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors express their thanks to the inspectors of the Marine and Coastal Division of the Ministry of the Environment that helped to direct the sampling vessels to the bloom centers.We thank Varon Gertner and Lora Izraelov as well as the crews of the RIV Shikmona and Etziona for their help with sampling and analysis.This research was funded by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure.


  • Chlorophyll-a
  • Haifa Bay
  • Mixing
  • Nutrients
  • Plankton bloom

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology


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