## Abstract

An exactly solvable model of a trapped interacting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coupled in the dipole approximation to a quantized light mode in a cavity is presented. The model can be seen as a generalization of the harmonic-interaction model for a trapped BEC coupled to a bosonic bath. After obtaining the ground-state energy and wavefunction in closed form, we focus on computing the correlations in the system. The reduced one-particle density matrices of the bosons and the cavity are constructed and diagonalized analytically, and the von Neumann entanglement entropy of the BEC and the cavity is also expressed explicitly as a function of the number and mass of the bosons, frequencies of the trap and cavity, and the cavity-boson coupling strength. The results allow one to study the impact of the cavity on the bosons and vice versa on an equal footing. As an application we investigate a specific case of basic interest for itself, namely, non-interacting bosons in a cavity. We find that both the bosons and the cavity develop correlations in a complementary manner while increasing the coupling between them. Whereas the cavity wavepacket broadens in Fock space, the BEC density saturates in real space. On the other hand, while the cavity depletion saturates, and hence does the BEC-cavity entanglement entropy, the BEC becomes strongly correlated and eventually increasingly fragmented. The latter phenomenon implies single-trap fragmentation of otherwise ideal bosons, where their induced long-range interaction is mediated by the cavity. Finally, as a complimentary investigation, the mean-field equations for the BEC-cavity system are solved analytically as well, and the breakdown of mean-field theory for the cavity and the bosons with increasing coupling is discussed. Further applications are envisaged.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 295305 |

Journal | Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical |

Volume | 57 |

Issue number | 29 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 19 Jul 2024 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© 2024 IOP Publishing Ltd.

## Keywords

- Bose-Einstein condensate
- cavity
- entanglement
- exactly-solvable model
- fragmentation
- many-body theory

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Modeling and Simulation
- Mathematical Physics
- General Physics and Astronomy