Enhancing cultural heritage outdoor experience with augmented-reality smart glasses

Eran Litvak, Tsvi Kuflik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Technologies such as context-aware mobile augmented reality (MAR) offer new ways of delivering information and creating new experiences for visitors of cultural heritage (CH) sites. Significant progress has been made in MAR for indoor museum visits. However, studies investigating the way that visitors interact with MAR in an open-air museum are lacking, as are studies aimed at identifying major usability and technology acceptance issues. This paper presents a special type of MAR—an augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG)-based mobile guide that served as a testbed for exploring the potential of ARSG to enhance visitor experience at outdoor CH sites. We developed the ARSG-based guide with location and orientation-based functionalities that provided visitors with context-aware information regarding the points of interest (POIs) in their field of view (FOV). We compared it with a more conventional smartphone-based guide (identical application). The results show that visitors are positive towards using ARSG as a tool for exploring cultural heritage (CH) sites and learning about exhibits. The results also highlighted several challenges that must be overcome before an ARSG-based system can be fully implemented for outdoor CH sites. Nonetheless, the visitors’ positive attitude indicates that ARSG technology may soon become an accepted part of CH tourism (and tourism in general).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)873-886
Number of pages14
JournalPersonal and Ubiquitous Computing
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.


  • Augmented reality
  • Cultural heritage
  • Mobile
  • Smart glasses
  • Smart tourism
  • System usability
  • User evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Management Science and Operations Research


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