Background: Resource trade-off theory suggests that increased performance on a given trait comes at the cost of decreased performance on other traits. Methods: Growth data from 1889 subjects (996 girls) were used from the GrowUp1974 Gothenburg study. Energy Trade-Off (ETO) between height and weight for individuals with extreme body types was characterized using a novel ETO-Score (ETOS). Four extreme body types were defined based on height and ETOI at early adulthood: tall-slender, short-stout, short-slender, and tall-stout; their growth trajectories assessed from ages 0.5-17.5 years.A GWAS using UK BioBank data was conducted to identify gene variants associated with height, BMI, and for the first time with ETOS. Results: Height and ETOS trajectories show a two-hit pattern with profound changes during early infancy and at puberty for tall-slender and short-stout body types. Several loci (including FTO, ADCY3, GDF5,) and pathways were identified by GWAS as being highly associated with ETOS. The most strongly associated pathways were related to “extracellular matrix,” “signal transduction,” “chromatin organization,” and “energy metabolism.” Conclusions: ETOS represents a novel anthropometric trait with utility in describing body types. We discovered the multiple genomic loci and pathways probably involved in energy trade-off.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource under application number 58024. Financial support came from the Swedish Governmental grants under the ALF agreement (ALFGBG-719041, ALFGBG-812951, ALFGBG-965451) and the Foundation Växthuset for children.
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved.
- energetic trade-off
- energy metabolism
- extreme body types
- growth trajectories
- UK Biobank
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical