Energy Trade-off and 4 Extreme Human Body Types

Zeev Hochberg, Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland, Florian Privé, Alina German, Anton Holmgren, Lisa Rubin, Michael Shmoish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Resource trade-off theory suggests that increased performance on a given trait comes at the cost of decreased performance on other traits. Methods: Growth data from 1889 subjects (996 girls) were used from the GrowUp1974 Gothenburg study. Energy Trade-Off (ETO) between height and weight for individuals with extreme body types was characterized using a novel ETO-Score (ETOS). Four extreme body types were defined based on height and ETOI at early adulthood: tall-slender, short-stout, short-slender, and tall-stout; their growth trajectories assessed from ages 0.5-17.5 years.A GWAS using UK BioBank data was conducted to identify gene variants associated with height, BMI, and for the first time with ETOS. Results: Height and ETOS trajectories show a two-hit pattern with profound changes during early infancy and at puberty for tall-slender and short-stout body types. Several loci (including FTO, ADCY3, GDF5,) and pathways were identified by GWAS as being highly associated with ETOS. The most strongly associated pathways were related to “extracellular matrix,” “signal transduction,” “chromatin organization,” and “energy metabolism.” Conclusions: ETOS represents a novel anthropometric trait with utility in describing body types. We discovered the multiple genomic loci and pathways probably involved in energy trade-off.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E89-E97
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number5
StatePublished - 13 Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved.


  • UK Biobank
  • energetic trade-off
  • energy metabolism
  • extreme body types
  • growth trajectories

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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