Efficient construction of diamond structures

Ariel Weizmann, Orr Dunkelman, Simi Haber

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


A cryptographic hash function is a function H: { 0, 1 } → { 0, 1 } n, that takes an arbitrary long input and transforms it to an n-bit output, while keeping some basic properties that ensure its security. Because they are very useful in computer security, cryptographic hash functions are amongst the most important primitives in the modern cryptography. The Merkle-Damgård structure is an iterative construction for transforming a compression function f: { 0, 1 } n× { 0, 1 } m→ { 0, 1 } n into a hash function, and it is widely used by different hash functions such as MD4, MD5, SHA0 and SHA1. Some generic attacks on this structure were presented in the last 15 years. Some of these attacks use the diamond structure, first introduced by Kelsey and Kohno in the herding attack. This structure is a complete binary tree that allows 2 k different inputs to lead to the same hash value, and it used in numerous attacks on the Merkle-Damgård structure. Following the herding attack, other papers analyzed and optimized the diamond structure. The best time complexity of constructing a diamond structure to date is about a·(formula presented) for a≈ 2.732. In this work we suggest a new and simple method for constructing a diamond structure with better time complexity of c·(formula presented) for c≈ 1.254. We present a pseudo-code for this new method, and a recursive formulation of it. We also present analysis supported by experiments of our new method.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProgress in Cryptology – INDOCRYPT 2017 - 18th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Proceedings
EditorsArpita Patra, Nigel P. Smart
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)9783319716664
StatePublished - 2017
Event18th International Conference on Cryptology in India, INDOCRYPT 2017 - Chennai, India
Duration: 10 Dec 201713 Dec 2017

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume10698 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference18th International Conference on Cryptology in India, INDOCRYPT 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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