Effects of personalized diets by prediction of glycemic responses on glycemic control and metabolic health in newly diagnosed T2DM: a randomized dietary intervention pilot trial

Michal Rein, Orly Ben-Yacov, Anastasia Godneva, Smadar Shilo, Niv Zmora, Dmitry Kolobkov, Noa Cohen-Dolev, Bat Chen Wolf, Noa Kosower, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Adina Weinberger, Zamir Halpern, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Eran Elinav, Eran Segal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Dietary modifications are crucial for managing newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and preventing its health complications, but many patients fail to achieve clinical goals with diet alone. We sought to evaluate the clinical effects of a personalized postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet on glycemic control and metabolic health in individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM as compared to the commonly recommended Mediterranean-style (MED) diet. METHODS: We enrolled 23 adults with newly diagnosed T2DM (aged 53.5 ± 8.9 years, 48% males) for a randomized crossover trial of two 2-week-long dietary interventions. Participants were blinded to their assignment to one of the two sequence groups: either PPT-MED or MED-PPT diets. The PPT diet relies on a machine learning algorithm that integrates clinical and microbiome features to predict personal postprandial glucose responses (PPGR). We further evaluated the long-term effects of PPT diet on glycemic control and metabolic health by an additional 6-month PPT intervention (n = 16). Participants were connected to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) throughout the study and self-recorded dietary intake using a smartphone application. RESULTS: In the crossover intervention, the PPT diet lead to significant lower levels of CGM-based measures as compared to the MED diet, including average PPGR (mean difference between diets, - 19.8 ± 16.3 mg/dl × h, p < 0.001), mean glucose (mean difference between diets, - 7.8 ± 5.5 mg/dl, p < 0.001), and daily time of glucose levels > 140 mg/dl (mean difference between diets, - 2.42 ± 1.7 h/day, p < 0.001). Blood fructosamine also decreased significantly more during PPT compared to MED intervention (mean change difference between diets, - 16.4 ± 37 μmol/dl, p < 0.0001). At the end of 6 months, the PPT intervention leads to significant improvements in multiple metabolic health parameters, among them HbA1c (mean ± SD, - 0.39 ± 0.48%, p < 0.001), fasting glucose (- 16.4 ± 24.2 mg/dl, p = 0.02) and triglycerides (- 49 ± 46 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Importantly, 61% of the participants exhibited diabetes remission, as measured by HbA1c < 6.5%. Finally, some clinical improvements were significantly associated with gut microbiome changes per person. CONCLUSION: In this crossover trial in subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM, a PPT diet improved CGM-based glycemic measures significantly more than a Mediterranean-style MED diet. Additional 6-month PPT intervention further improved glycemic control and metabolic health parameters, supporting the clinical efficacy of this approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01892956.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56
Number of pages1
JournalBMC Medicine
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 9 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022. The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Dietary intervention
  • Gut microbiome
  • Personalized nutrition
  • Postprandial glucose responses
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (all)

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