The study examines long-term effects of family violence in childhood (violence between parents and/or parent-to-child violence) on adult self-esteem. Data were derived from a sample of 352 university students. Findings show that young adults not exposed to family violence in childhood report the highest self-esteem; lower self-esteem reports were by those experiencing one type of family violence; the lowest self-esteem was reported by those who experienced two types of family violence. In the latter two groups, self-esteem was also affected by frequency of violence. A linkage was identified between the family violence types examined: The more frequent one type of violence, the more frequent the other type. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of effects of family violence on child development are discussed.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
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- Child exposure to family violence
- Co-occurrence family violence
- Corporal punishment
- Interparental physical violence
- Parent-to-child physical violence
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Health(social science)