Economic Impact of Insufficient and Disturbed Sleep in the Workplace

Danielle R. Glick, Samuel A. Abariga, Irine Thomas, Andrea G. Shipper, Brian C. Gunia, Michael A. Grandner, Elliot Rosenberg, Stella E. Hines, Vincent Capaldi, Jacob Collen, Emerson M. Wickwire

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objective: Insufficient and disturbed sleep are associated with significant morbidity among working-age adults. Poor sleep results in negative health outcomes and increases economic costs to employers. The current systematic review surveyed the peer-reviewed scientific literature and aggregated scientific evidence of sleep-related economic burdens borne by employers. Methods: A systematic review was performed to identify peer-reviewed, English language studies evaluating the economic impact of insufficient and disturbed sleep among adult employee populations. An exhaustive literature search was performed using keywords related to sleep, economics, and the workplace. Included were scientific studies (randomized controlled trials, cohort and case control studies, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies) examining specific employee populations with relevant sleep and economic outcomes. Each included study was evaluated for risk of bias and relevant data was extracted and summarized. Results: Sleep problems among employee populations are associated with worsened workplace outcomes, such as presenteeism, absenteeism, and accidents. Sleep problems also increased costs to employers, ranging from US$322 to US$1967 per employee. Interventions to improve sleep, such as the use of blue-light filtering glasses, strategic shift scheduling, and targeted interventions to treat insomnia, may improve workplace outcomes and reduce costs. Conclusions: This review synthesizes the existing data regarding the negative impacts of insufficient and disturbed sleep on the workplace, suggesting that employers have an economic stake in their employees’ sleep. Trial Registration: PROSPERO: CRD42021224212.

Original languageEnglish
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
EMW’s institution has received research support from AASM Foundation, Department of Defense, Merck, ResMed, and ResMed Foundation. EMW has served as a scientific consultant for DayZz, Eisai, EnsoData, Idorsia, Merck, Primasun, Purdue, and ResMed, and is an equity stakeholder in WellTap. MAG has received research support from cERAz and Jazz Pharmaceuticals and has served as a paid scientific consultant for Fitbit, Natrol, Idorsia, Merck, National Sleep Foundation, and Smartypants Vitamins. SEH's institution has received research support from Department of Defense, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and CleanSpace Technology. DRG, SAA, IT, VC, JC, BG, ER, AGS declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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