Dynamic push-pull characteristics at three hand-reach envelopes: Applications for the workplace

Maya Calé-Benzoor, Ruth Dickstein, Michal Arnon, Moshe Ayalon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pushing and pulling are common tasks in the workplace. Overexertion injuries related to manual pushing and pulling are often observed, and therefore the understanding of work capacity is important for efficient and safe workstation design. The purpose of the present study was to describe workloads obtained during different reach envelopes during a seated push-pull task. Forty-five women performed an isokinetic push-pull sequence at two velocities. Strength, work and agonist/antagonist muscle ratio were calculated for the full range of motion (ROM). We then divided the ROM into three reach envelopes - neutral, medium, and maximum reach. The work capacity for each direction was determined and the reach envelope work data were compared. Push capability was best at medium reach envelope and pulling was best at maximum reach envelope. Push/pull strength ratio was approximately 1. A recommendation was made to avoid strenuous push-pull tasks at neutral reach envelopes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)216-221
Number of pages6
JournalApplied Ergonomics
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society.


  • Isokinetic
  • Push-pull
  • Reach envelope

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Dynamic push-pull characteristics at three hand-reach envelopes: Applications for the workplace'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this