Dot-to-dot practice enhances Children's handwriting: The advantage of a multi-session training protocol

Rafat Ghanamah, Hazar Eghbaria-Ghanamah, Avi Karni, Esther Adi-Japha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Handwriting instruction commonly involves the practice of non-linguistic writing-like patterns. Here, we compare the transfer to Arabic sentence-writing of different practice scheduling of the Invented Letter Task (ILT), a simple dot-to-dot connecting task, aiming to decide best-practice scheduling. Ninety-seven 7- to 8-year-old public-school Arab Israeli second-graders were assigned randomly, within-class, to five study groups: three single-session practice groups (different amounts, with 60/180/360 repetitions), a 360-repetition multi-session practice group (distributed across four days), and an untrained control group. Handwriting was assessed at pre-training, 24-h, and 4–5 weeks post-training. The findings revealed that by 4–5 weeks post-training all the practice groups wrote more fluently or accurately than the control group. The multi-session practice group's handwriting performance was advantageous to that of the other groups, being more fluent than the other groups and more legible than the control group. The findings suggest that practicing simple grapho-motor tasks may enhance handwriting abilities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101756
JournalLearning and Instruction
StatePublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Handwriting
  • Invented letter task (ILT)
  • Practice schedule
  • Speed/ legibility
  • Transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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