Recurrence of breast cancer disease years after treatment appears to arise from disseminated dormant tumor cells (DTC). The mechanisms underlying the outgrowth of DTC remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that dormant MCF-7 cells expressing LOXL2 acquire a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype, mediating their outgrowth in the 3D BME system that models tumor dormancy and outgrowth. Similarly, MCF-7-LOXL2 cells colonizing the lung transitioned from dormancy to metastatic outgrowth whereas MCF-7 cells remained dormant. Notably, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of MCF-7-LOXL2 cells was required for their CSClike properties and their transition to metastatic outgrowth. These findings were further supported by clinical data demonstrating that increase in LOXL2 mRNA levels correlates with increase in the mRNA levels of EMT and stem cells markers, and is also associated with decrease in relapse free survival of breast cancer patients. Notably, conditional hypoxia induced expression of endogenous LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells promoted EMT and the acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype, while knockdown of LOXL2 inhibited this transition. Overall, our results demonstrate that expression of LOXL2 endowed DTC with CSC-like phenotype driving their transition to metastatic outgrowth and this stem-like phenotype is dependent on EMT that can be driven by the tumor microenvironment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Dr. Amiram Ariel for the use of FACS Canto II (BD) equipment. This study was supported by a Research Career Development Award from the Israel Cancer Research Fund and by the Israel Cancer Association (to DB) and by an ISF-china grant (to GN).
- Breast cancer recurrence
- Cancer stem cells
- Dormant tumor cells
- Epithelial mesenchymal transition
ASJC Scopus subject areas