In a series of meta-analyses with the second generation of Holocaust survivors, no evidence for secondary traumatization was found (Van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Sagi-Schwartz, 2003). With regard to third generation traumatization, various reports suggest the presence of intergenerational transmission of trauma. Some scholars argue that intergenerational transmission of trauma might skip a generation. Therefore, we focus in this study on the transmission of trauma to the third generation offspring (the grandchildren) of the first generation's traumatic Holocaust experiences (referred to as "tertiary traumatization"), and we present a narrative review of the pertinent studies. Meta-analytic results of 13 non-clinical samples involving 1012 participants showed no evidence for tertiary traumatization in Holocaust survivor families. Our previous meta-analytic study on secondary traumatization and the present one on third generation's psychological consequences of the Holocaust indicate a remarkable resilience of profoundly traumatized survivors in their (grand-)parental roles.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Abraham Sagi-Schwartz was supported by the Mary Main Visiting Professional Chair at the Centre for Child and family studies, Leiden University, the Netherlands. Marinus van IJzendoorn and Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg were supported by research awards from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO SPINOZA prize and VIDI grant no. 452-04-306, respectively).
- Tertiary traumatization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health