DNA variations of the green toad Pseudepidalea viridis (syn. Bufo viridis) from various habitats

Gad Degani, Tali Goldberg, Avital Gasith, Eldad Elron, Eviatar Nevo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The present study examined genetic variations of the green toad Pseudepidalea viridis from different breeding sites throughout Israel and in Egypt, Turkey, Iran, and Germany (out-groups). Results: Comparison of Cyt b and D-loop fragments from Israeli sites with those from the four out-groups showed that analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was greatest among regions. Values of proportion of the total genetic variance among regions (PhiRT) in Israeli sites were relatively low and not statistically significant. A cluster analysis of RAPD for classifying P. viridis revealed a subgroup comprising seven northernmost populations and three populations near the southern and eastern deserts surrounding Israel. AFLP analysis defined all individuals in a single cluster. Variations in P. viridis according to AMOVA test of Israeli sites using GenAl were 2% among regions, 8% among populations, and 90% within populations. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that various ecological conditions in a relatively small area have little effect on genetic variations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number18
JournalZoological Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was approved by the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (SPNI).


  • AFLP
  • Amphibians
  • Mitochondrial genes
  • RAPD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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