Distress tolerance scale: A confirmatory factor analysis among daily cigarette smokers

Teresa M. Leyro, Amit Bernstein, Anka A. Vujanovic, Alison C. McLeish, Michael J. Zvolensky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present investigation evaluated the factor structure of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS; Simons and Gaher 2005) among a sample of 173 (54.9% males) daily cigarette smokers (M=16.64 cigarettes per day, SD=7.83). Comparison of a single higher-order model and a hierarchical multidimensional model was conducted using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In addition, evaluation of the internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the better-fitting model was completed. CFA of the DTS indicated a single second-order factor of distress tolerance, and four lower-order factors including Tolerance, Appraisal, Absorption, and Regulation; each factor demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency. In addition, the DTS displayed good convergent and discriminant validity with theoretically relevant smoking and affect variables. Results are discussed in terms of explicating the latent structure of distress tolerance, as measured by the DTS, within the context of smoking research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-57
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2011


  • Cigarette smokers
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Distress intolerance
  • Distress tolerance
  • Emotion regulation
  • Nicotine
  • Substance use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology


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