Disadvantaged populations are disproportionately affected by multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), yet few studies examine the prevalence, outcomes, or effectiveness of MCC interventions in minority and socioeconomically deprived individuals and populations. An important first step in understanding MCCs, not only in such diverse population groups, but also in the general population as a whole, is to broaden the definition and scope of MCC measurement, to encompass more than the simple additive effect of clinical conditions, and to include a wide range of health and health-related aspects that interact and make up the full spectrum of multimorbidity. Only with the use of a comprehensive MCC measurement can some of the differences between the disadvantaged populations be adequately detected. Better understanding of the disparities in access to high quality health and healthcare for persons with MCCs can help guide policy and practice aimed at the prevention and amelioration of the effects of MCCs among disadvantaged groups. Indeed, disparity in MCC populations has been identified as a key goal of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Strategic Framework on MCCs. The aim of the present paper is to describe current knowledge on disparities in the population of persons with MCCs and to guide efforts for the prevention and management of MCCs in disadvantaged populations.