|Title of host publication||The International Encyclopedia of Communication|
|Place of Publication||Oxford|
|Publisher||John Wiley & Sons, Ltd|
|Number of pages||1|
|State||Published - 2008|
Using language – “languaging” (Becker 1988) – is possible at two levels of discourse. Generally, when we use language, we look through it at a world we believe to exist beyond language. However, we can also use language for metalanguaging, i.e., in order to look through it at the process of using language itself (→ Linguistics; Conversation Analysis). Discourse markers can be viewed as linguistic elements employed for metalanguaging – languaging about the interaction, as opposed to languaging about the extralingual world. In other words, rather than referring to the world perceived by speakers to exist beyond language, discourse markers refer to the text itself, to the interaction among its speakers, or to the cognitive processes taking place in their minds during verbalization (Maschler 1994).
- language and social interaction