Differential reaction patterns to September 11ths events

Leehu Zysberg, Anna Zisberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A quasi-exploratory field study examined the possible differential psychological responses of American (n = 82) and international (n = 50) samples located in the US, to the events of September 11th collected six months after the attack. Comparing two views on the psychological effects of acts of terrorism on the target population, it was hypothesized that the direct target population (American) and the indirect target population or the “bystander population” (international) will vary in their patterns of reaction. A questionnaire assessing three categories of psychological-attitudinal reactions to acts of terrorism (emotional, perceptions of perpetrators and their agenda and behavioral intentions) revealed significant differences between the two samples: while both samples exhibited adverse emotional responses, the American sample tended to view the situation more as a war and tended to be less yielding or understanding toward the perpetrators than the “bystander” sample. Some implications for future research and current existing theories are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-12
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Peace and Development Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2012


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