A modified approach based on the GISH technique for detecting introgressed chromosomes/chromosome arms from closely related S-genome species to wheat genome and for visualization of A-, B- and D-genomes of Triticum aestivum L. (genome AABBDD, 2n = 6× = 42) is presented. For detecting alien chromosomes we investigated two lines of bread wheat, one is an addition line with a pair of chromosome No. 4 short arms from Aegilops searsii (4SsS) and a wheat substitution line with a pair of chromosomes No. 6 from Ae. longissima (6S1). A hybridization mixture consists of two differently labelled DNAs, one from the line used for chromosome spread preparations, and the second from origin species of alien chromosomes. The latter adds different color in the regions of its hybridization showing the presence of alien chromosomes by creating a strong and easily detected combined signal. For discriminating A-, B-, and D-genome chromosomes, the hybridization mixture of differently labelled total DNA from Ae. tauschii - the proposed progenitor of D-genome (detected red) and T. dicoccoides (genome AABB) (detected green) were used. The high temperature of hybridization allows high precision annealing of chromosome/probe sequences and at the same time it sharpens differences between reassociation kinetics of eu- and heterochromatin revealing chromosome substructure. A pre-annealing step increases probe specificity. As a result, we observed brown chromosomes of A-genome, banded green chromosomes of B-genome and red chromosomes of D-genome. Inter genomic invasion of the sequences from A/B-genomes to D-genome has been detected.
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