The Arab Spring uprisings received intensive coverage and had a negative effect on tourism to the Middle East. This study aimed to uncover media strategies used by Middle Eastern countries' marketers to restore a positive image in times of change and challenge and to bring back tourists, by analyzing marketing initiatives, media policy, crisis communication techniques and the components of advertising campaigns. Integrating theory and practice, and adopting the "multi-step model for altering place image," the study applied qualitative content analysis of advertisements, press interviews, and global tourism news websites. Three types of strategies were used by marketers to restore a positive image: source, message and audience.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
- Arab Spring
- Crisis communication
- Media strategies
- Middle East
- Tourism marketing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
- Strategy and Management