Decision-making modes regarding the inclusive dilemmas of students with educational challenges in mainstream classrooms

Sophie Shauli, Tali Heiman, Dorit Olenik-Shemesh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the last 20 years, increasing numbers of students with educational challenges (SECs) have been included in mainstream schools. Inclusion creates complex classroom situations for mainstream teachers who need to have excellent decision-making skills and the ability to face and resolve ethical dilemmas. College students and pre and in-service teachers were asked about their attitudes towards SEC inclusion, as well as three open-ended dilemmas during vignettes depicting challenging situations in inclusive class forcing decision-making. An online closed and open-ended questionnaire was administered (n = 489). The analysis revealed significant differences in the type of solution to these dilemmas in the three groups. There was a significant interaction between high sensitivity to the feelings of the inclusive students and the participants' overall tendency to support the inclusion of the SECs, positive attitudes towards inclusion, low expression of stigma and a higher sense of self-efficacy. Implications and practical offers are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-212
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Research in Special Educational Needs
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 National Association for Special Educational Needs.


  • decision-making
  • ethical dilemmas
  • inclusion
  • students with educational challenges

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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