Crystal nucleation and growth of spherulites demonstrated by coral skeletons and phase-field simulations

Chang Yu Sun, László Gránásy, Cayla A. Stifler, Tal Zaquin, Rajesh V. Chopdekar, Nobumichi Tamura, James C. Weaver, Jun A.Y. Zhang, Stefano Goffredo, Giuseppe Falini, Matthew A. Marcus, Tamás Pusztai, Vanessa Schoeppler, Tali Mass, Pupa U.P.A. Gilbert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Spherulites are radial distributions of acicular crystals, common in biogenic, geologic, and synthetic systems, yet exactly how spherulitic crystals nucleate and grow is still poorly understood. To investigate these processes in more detail, we chose scleractinian corals as a model system, because they are well known to form their skeletons from aragonite (CaCO3) spherulites, and because a comparative study of crystal structures across coral species has not been performed previously. We observed that all 12 diverse coral species analyzed here exhibit plumose spherulites in their skeletons, with well-defined centers of calcification (CoCs), and crystalline fibers radiating from them. In 7 of the 12 species, we observed a skeletal structural motif not observed previously: randomly oriented, equant crystals, which we termed “sprinkles”. In Acropora pharaonis, these sprinkles are localized at the CoCs, while in 6 other species, sprinkles are either layered at the growth front (GF) of the spherulites, or randomly distributed. At the nano- and micro-scale, coral skeletons fill space as much as single crystals of aragonite. Based on these observations, we tentatively propose a spherulite formation mechanism in which growth front nucleation (GFN) of randomly oriented sprinkles, competition for space, and coarsening produce spherulites, rather than the previously assumed slightly misoriented nucleations termed “non-crystallographic branching”. Phase-field simulations support this mechanism, and, using a minimal set of thermodynamic parameters, are able to reproduce all of the microstructural variation observed experimentally in all of the investigated coral skeletons. Beyond coral skeletons, other spherulitic systems, from aspirin to semicrystalline polymers and chocolate, may also form according to the mechanism for spherulite formation proposed here. Statement of Significance: Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of spherulite nucleation and growth has broad ranging applications in the fields of metallurgy, polymers, food science, and pharmaceutical production. Using the skeletons of reef-building corals as a model system for investigating these processes, we propose a new spherulite growth mechanism that can not only explain the micro-structural diversity observed in distantly related coral species, but may point to a universal growth mechanism in a wide range of biologically and technologically relevant spherulitic materials systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-292
Number of pages16
JournalActa Biomaterialia
StatePublished - 15 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


  • Animals
  • Anthozoa
  • Calcification, Physiologic
  • Calcium Carbonate
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Skeleton


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