COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among Israeli adults before and after vaccines’ availability: A cross-sectional national survey

Dvora Frankenthal, Miri Zatlawi, Ziv Karni-Efrati, Lital Keinan-Boker, Osnat Luxenburg, Michal Bromberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Vaccine hesitancy (VH) is a major health threat to the efforts to tackle COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. This study's objectives were to assess COVID-19 VH before and after vaccines' availability and to analyze the associations between COVID-19 VH and participants’ characteristics. A national cross-sectional telephone interview survey among Israeli adults aged 21 and older was conducted from September 2020 through May 2021. Attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines were assessed pre/post vaccines' availability. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between demographic and health-related characteristics and COVID-19 VH. Most study participants (72.0 % of 2,998) were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19 across the survey period. The COVID-19 VH declined significantly from 45.6 % pre-vaccine availability to 16.3 % post-vaccine availability (P < 0.001). The multivariable analysis demonstrated that post-vaccine availability, COVID-19 VH was associated with younger age, Arab ethnicity, higher level of religiosity, lower education, past diagnosis of COVID-19, and influenza VH. The main reasons for VH after the vaccine availability included insufficient data on the vaccine (37.4 %) and fear of the vaccine's side effects (33.8 %). Despite the significant decrease in COVID-19 VH following vaccine availability, 16.3% of the population still refuses to get vaccinated. As Israel may face additional waves of the COVID-19 pandemic and booster vaccinations, multimedia vaccine promotions targeting the above-mentioned hesitant populations and their reasons for VH are urgently needed.

Original languageEnglish
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • COVID-19
  • Israel
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vaccine hesitancy
  • Vaccine uptake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology (all)
  • Veterinary (all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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