Counselor and Therapist Gender Bias? More Questions Than Answers

Azy Barak, William A. Fisher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We examined inconsistent evidence for counselor and therapist gender bias in empirical investigations and literature reviews. Three sets of possible explanations for inconsistent findings are proposed and illustrated with examples: conceptual and definitional problems with the concept of gender bias; methodological shortcomings in key studies in this area; and the influence of researchers' beliefs and values on interpretation of research findings. We suggest that any conclusions about counselor and therapist gender bias are premature, that existing research must be reevaluated in light of the limitations that have been identified, and that future research that avoids these pitfalls must be conducted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-383
Number of pages7
JournalProfessional Psychology: Research and Practice
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1989
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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