Consideration of fine-scale coastal oceanography and 3-D acoustics effects for the ESME sound exposure model

James F. Lynch, John A. Colosi, Glen G. Gawarkiewicz, Timothy F. Duda, Allan D. Pierce, Mohsen Badiey, Boris G. Katsnelson, James E. Miller, William Siegmann, Ching Sang Chiu, Arthur Newhall

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Results and recommendations for evaluating the effects of fine-scale oceanographic scattering and three-dimensional (3-D) acoustic propagation variability on the Effects of Sound on the Marine Environment (ESME) acoustic exposure model are presented. Pertinent acoustic scattering theory is briefly reviewed and ocean sound-speed fluctuation models are discussed. Particular attention is given to the nonlinear and linear components of the ocean internal wave field as a source of sound-speed inhomogeneities. Sound scattering through the mainly isotropic linear internal wave field is presented and new results relating to acoustic scattering by the nonlinear internal wave field in both along and across internal wave wavefront orientations are examined. In many cases, there are noteworthy fine-scale induced intensity biases and fluctuations of order 5-20 dB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-48
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Acoustic intensity fluctuations
  • Exposure of marine mammals to sound
  • Fine-scale oceanography
  • Meso-scale oceanography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Consideration of fine-scale coastal oceanography and 3-D acoustics effects for the ESME sound exposure model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this