Confidence judgments: The monitoring of object-level and same-level performance

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The influential metacognitive framework of Nelson and Narens (1990) distinguishes between object-level and meta-level, with two metacognitive processes, monitoring and control, governing the interplay between them. Monitoring refers to the process by which the meta-level tracks the accuracy of object level-performance, whereas control refers to the processes by which the meta-level regulates object-level processes. In this study, I examine the prediction derived from Koriat’s (Psychological Review, 119, 80–113 2012a) self-consistency model (SCM) that when people indicate their confidence in the accuracy of their choice, their confidence actually monitors the likelihood that others will make the same choice better than the accuracy of that choice. This was shown to be the case for three levels of processing: choosing the correct option, predicting the choice made by others, and predicting the predictions made by others about the majority choice. The conditions under which object-level correspondence and same-level correspondence are aligned or diverge are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-478
Number of pages16
JournalMetacognition and Learning
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Confidence judgments
  • Meta-object correspondence
  • Monitoring
  • Predicting others
  • Same-level correspondence
  • Self-consistency model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


Dive into the research topics of 'Confidence judgments: The monitoring of object-level and same-level performance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this