The bipolar valence-arousal model is assumed by many to be an underlying structure of conscious experience of core affect and emotion. In this work, we compare three versions of the bipolar valence-arousal model at the neural domain, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Specifically, we systematically contrast three models of arousal: model 1 - 'arousal as a separate quale from valence', model 2 - 'arousal as intensity of bipolar valence' and model 3 - 'arousal as a linear combination of unipolar pleasant and unpleasant'. Using parametric modulation analysis, we estimated the ability of each model to predict activation in arousal-related brain regions, in response to affective stimuli. The results suggest that arousal is not separable from valence in its ability to predict arousal-related neural activity. The relevance of the results to the theory of conscious affect is discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The current work was funded by the United States Israel Binational Science Foundation, Grant Number 2015039.
© 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press.
- parametric modulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Cognitive Neuroscience