Comparing objective and subjective learning curves: Judgments of learning exhibit increased underconfidence with practice

Asher Koriat, Limor Sheffer, Hilit Ma'ayan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

When participants studied a list of paired associates for several study-test cycles, their judgments of learning (JOLs) exhibited relatively good calibration on the 1st cycle, with a slight overconfidence. However, a shift toward marked underconfidence occurred from the 2nd cycle on. This underconfidence-with-practice (UWP) effect was very robust across several experimental manipulations, such as feedback or no feedback regarding the correctness of the answer, self-paced versus fixed-rate presentation, different incentives for correct performance, magnitude and direction of associative relationships, and conditions producing different degrees of knowing. It was also observed both in item-by-item JOLs and in aggregate JOLs. The UWP effect also occurred for list learning and for the memory of action events. Several theoretical explanations for this counterintuitive effect are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-162
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
Volume131
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Psychology (all)
  • Developmental Neuroscience

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