Researchers to date have presented strategies and theoretical models built mainly on the efforts of destinations in the developing world to recover from tourism crises following terror attacks. As terrorism has expanded to Europe after 2014, it is interesting to analyze the strategies used by European officials to repair their destinations’ images. To date, only several studies have been written about the subject, and those were primarily analyzes of specific case studies. Therefore, a multi-case study is needed. Using a qualitative content analysis of advertisements, websites, media reports, digital marketing and ‘the multi-step model for altering place image,’ the study examines strategies used to bring back tourists after 89 terror attacks by European destinations between the years 2014-2019. The analysis reveals a major use of message strategies (‘business as usual’, crisis mitigation, initiating events and new attractions, image expansion, and encouragement of film production). The study also reveals a minor use of source strategies (physical threats of news people or media blockage) and audience strategies as well (new audience expansion, emphasis of similar values).
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
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- Terrorism in Europe
- image repair
- marketing destinations
- recovery marketing
- tourism crisis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management